Digital nomads have rejected the office, but has the quest for freedom led to a different battle? – Qrius

The digital nomad on the seaside may need turn into a cliché, however what’s to not like about residing and dealing in paradise? Quite a bit, apparently
By Qrius
Dave Cook, UCL
A ‘community state’ is ideologically aligned however geographically decentralised. The individuals are unfold all over the world in clusters of various measurement, however their hearts are in a single place.
In June 2022 Balaji Srinivasan, former chief expertise officer of the Coinbase cryptocurrency trade, revealed an e book entitled The Network State: How To Start a New Country. It’s the newest in a flurry of utopian visions by self-styled digital visionaries, crypto believers and internet 3.0 evangelists who’re lining as much as declare the loss of life of the normal idea of nations and nationhood.
In a single case, a brand new “digital” nation is already in growth. “The nation state is outdated – it’s based mostly on Nineteenth-century pondering, and we intention to upend all of that,” Lauren Razavi tells me over Zoom from a bustling co-working area.
Razavi is the manager director of Plumia, a self-proclaimed “moonshot mission” to construct an web nation for digital nomads. Born in Britain to an Iranian immigrant, Razavi sees herself as untethered and borderless, and likens nationwide citizenship and tax to a “subscription” that could be very arduous to cancel.
“We’re all enrolled into this automated subscription based mostly on the coincidence of our birthplace or our heritage, and that actually doesn’t work within the twenty first century.”
As an anthropologist, I’ve been chronicling the digital nomad life-style for the previous seven years. Pre-pandemic, the popular stereotype was of a carefree millennial who had escaped the every day grind to journey the world with out hindrance, engaged on a laptop computer in some far-flung seaside cafe with their solely limitation being the standard of the wifi.
As way back as 2015, I used to be listening to recurring complaints from these nomads concerning the ideological and sensible frictions that nation states pose – it simply hadn’t organised itself right into a motion but.
For some time, COVID-19 appeared to place the brakes on the nomadic dream, as most have been compelled to move dwelling to western international locations and the protection internet of healthcare techniques. But now, the remote working revolution triggered by the pandemic has given this borderless life-style “undertaking” a new impetus.
Earlier than COVID struck, 12% of workers in the US labored remotely full time, and 5% in the UK. However the pandemic shortly proved distant work was doable for a lot of extra individuals. Office norms toppled like dominos: the workplace, in-person conferences and the every day commute fell first. Nations comparable to Barbados, Estonia and Portugal began issuing remote work visas to encourage geographically versatile staff to relocate to their territories. “Zoom towns” are one other pattern, with cities comparable to Augusta, Maine within the US providing monetary sweeteners to draw distant staff.
Having consigned the workplace to the trash, it is sensible that the nation state is the following establishment that digital nomads wish to recycle. To Razavi, membership of a nation state “provides extremely poor worth … The points which can be actually caught prior to now embody citizenship, passports and tax. Our imaginative and prescient is to add the nation state to the cloud.”
The idea of creating an internet country was dreamt up throughout an organization hackathon. Plumia is owned and staffed by Safety Wing, an HQ-less insurance coverage firm which sells journey and well being cowl to digital nomads and distant working groups (tagline: “Insurance coverage for nomads by nomads”). Security Wing, in accordance with its homepage, is “right here to take away the position of geographical borders as a barrier to equal alternatives and freedom for everybody”.
However the realities of life as a digital nomad, and the dream of shedding your nationality for a borderless, paperless model, are stuffed with day-to-day problems, as I’ve found – significantly if you don’t belong to the younger, white and western stereotype that the media tends to perpetuate. Trailer for an early DNX convention.
I first heard about digital nomads in 2015 whereas chatting to Thom*, a seasoned traveller in Koh Phangan. Thom was neither expat nor vacationer, and infrequently appeared to return dwelling. I requested him how individuals survived whereas consistently travelling. He had a laundry checklist of issues, from hassles subletting his condominium in Hamburg to his financial institution stalking him for a everlasting tackle, and the hell of navigating visa guidelines.
Later within the dialog, he paused and declared, “You’re speaking about digital nomads – I can’t consider you’ve by no means heard of them!” Laughing, he defined, “It’s somebody a bit like me however who thinks the underside layer of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is quick wifi as a substitute of shelter. There’s a digital nomad convention occurring in Bangkok in a couple of months. Let’s go.”
How digital nomads see themselves:
Two months later, I used to be strolling up Rangnam Street in Bangkok on a damp morning, in search of the DNX conference. Simply off the aircraft and battling jetlag, I visited a espresso store and overheard two German males discussing the convention. Fabian, who was wearing camo cargo shorts and a black T-shirt, instructed me he was giving the keynote speech. He deliberate to share his experiences of driving throughout Africa enjoying guitar for charity, and of establishing a borderless tech start-up whereas travelling via South America.
On the convention venue I discovered crowds of individuals checking-in utilizing Eventbrite apps. Lanyards with the slogan “I CHOOSE FREEDOM” have been handed out. At this stage, I didn’t query what sort of freedom.
Most attendees have been casually dressed males from the worldwide north of their 20s and 30s. Though most carried small backpacks, nobody seemed like a backpacker. The lads have been in shorts and navy or khaki polo shirts. The few girls current wore impartial sundresses. Nobody would have seemed misplaced in a enterprise assembly in a world lodge foyer.
Digital nomads vigorously differentiate themselves from vacationers and backpackers. One nomad instructed me, “I’d be bored shitless if I hung round on the seaside all day getting stoned.” Nonetheless, these two tribes typically collide in places like Ko Pha Ngan or Chiang Mai in Thailand.
Talks on the convention typically repeated the phrase “freedom”. Freedom to reside and work wherever, freedom from the rat race, entrepreneurial freedom, freedom to take management of your life and future. Different well-worn themes included “life hacks” enabling nomadic companies to perform effectively on the transfer, the position of co-working areas, and inspirational travelogues.
Within the convention introduction by DNX founders Marcus Meurer and Feli Hargarten (additionally recognized, respectively, as Sonic Blue and Yara Pleasure), a YouTube video entitled The Rise of Lowsumerism was performed. The video claimed that extreme consumerism was being changed by a superior sharing economic system which “prioritises entry over possession”. That is what Razavi now calls subscription living.
Regardless of the video’s critique of “senseless consumerism”, it used a visible model that would have been promoting luxurious flats. All of it sounded enjoyable and costly. The video ended with the phrase: “Earth just isn’t an enormous purchasing centre.” The convention was hosted in a mall.
Some talks obtained into the gritty trivialities of world residing in shocking element. Natalie Sissons, whose private model is The Suitcase Entrepreneur, used her presenting slot to share her digital productiveness methods, projecting her yearly schedule on the huge convention display screen. She defined how her digital calendar app, Calendly, routinely translated timezones, flattening nationwide time variations into international, bookable and productive assembly slots and tasks. She was additionally a frisbee champion and liked doing handstands.
Then got here Fabian Dittrich’s keynote. He was billed as a travelling tech entrepreneur, walked on stage nonetheless wearing shorts and a T-shirt, and was honest and intense. He recounted how his college careers adviser instructed him he wanted to “slot in like an adjusted citizen” – however that he “rejected the system and a well-paid job in London [because] it was a workstyle, not a life-style”. He linked this dissatisfaction with workplace life to his rejection of his nationwide id.
Each Dittrich and Sissons gave the impression to be residing incarnations of the life-style extolled by Tim Ferriss in his seminal 2004 self-help e book, The 4-Hour Work Week. Their logic pathologised the workplace and the nation state – each have been forged as threats to untethered freedom.
Within the closing part of the convention, Dittrich turned his anger immediately on the nation state. He clicked to a PowerPoint slide 25-feet large which parodied the Ascent of Man. His visible depicted human evolution from an ape to a digitally liberated human retreating, presenting digital nomadism as a future trajectory for humanity.
His subsequent slide confirmed two globes: the primary coated with nationwide flags headed “What individuals assume I’m”; the second with out flags titled “What I actually am”. Dittrich defined that his private id had nothing to do together with his nationality. His efficiency made me consider Diogenes’s proclamation: “I’m a citizen of the world.” The viewers erupted into applause.
After the primary convention, there have been after-parties and workshops. I discovered that many delegates have been new to the nomad scene. Everybody needed the key formulation of a blissful life combining work and international journey.
When it was over, in my creativeness, all of the delegates jetted off to their tropical hammocks. I trudged again to the UK winter, my day job, and to my mom’s hospital mattress which I had left 4 days earlier. I discovered her in the identical mattress, recovering from most cancers surgical procedure which had saved her life, supplied by the UK’s Nationwide Well being Service.
It’s apt that the prototype digital state of Plumia is owned by a journey insurance coverage firm. Each digital nomads and sceptics of this life-style agree that challenges to sustaining a nomadic existence are 90% sensible. Visa guidelines, tax obligations and healthcare are frequent nomad ache factors.
Healthcare is the plain first hurdle. Nomads want insurance coverage that covers them for issues like scooter accidents and patches them up on the highway, to allow them to make it again to a co-working area or their subsequent vacation spot. Traditionally, most traditional journey insurance coverage covers a most of 30 days, so for Security Wing, longer-term healthcare and journey insurance coverage for nomads is a spot out there.
Tax planning doesn’t make for attractive weblog posts – however it did train me rather a lot concerning the struggles of turning into a digital nomad, and what it actually means to be the member of a nation state. I met Ben in a Thai co-working area. He was fresh-faced and idealistic, but additionally careworn and strapped for money.
Ben had left the UK as a backpacker, staying in Australia beneath the working vacation visa programme the place he labored on a sheep farm within the outback. Tired of nothing to do within the evenings, he stumbled throughout a digital nomad blog promising a lifetime of journey, work and freedom. When Ben left the farm to backpack with associates, his thoughts stored returning to that weblog which mentioned “earn cash while travelling the world”. He instructed me:
All my associates needed to do was get drunk within the subsequent hostel. They knew they’d run out of cash and should go dwelling. I realised I may proceed travelling while working, as a substitute of going dwelling broke and having to search for a job.
Ben headed to a co-working area in Thailand and taught himself web site design. However the Australian authorities was pursuing him for unpaid taxes as a result of he had overstayed his visa whereas working. Sadly, one tax woe led to a different.
Confronted with the dilemma of paying the Australian authorities or risking not with the ability to go to his girlfriend in Sydney, he used his new design abilities to earn some cash. He had befriended the homeowners of a Thai guesthouse and instructed them he may create an affordable web site for them. The homeowners “have been delighted”, however the supervisor of the Thai co-working area discovered and instructed Ben it was unlawful for somebody on a vacationer visa to work immediately with Thai shoppers. If the co-working area was discovered to be internet hosting unlawful staff, they could possibly be prosecuted and shut down.
To turn into efficiently “free”, digital nomads should turn into specialists in protecting forward of state bureaucracies. Most study the arduous means once they run into hassle. Earlier than the pandemic, Thailand appeared like the proper digital nomad location as a result of its Instagram-worthy seashores, quick web and low value of residing. Think about Ferriss’s 4-Hour Work Week merged with Alex Garland’s The Seaside, solely with a distinct ending.
But visa guidelines and employee protections in Thailand are strict, if not at all times rigorously enforced. Round 2018, the Thai state grew to become acutely conscious and suspicious of digital nomads. In reply to the query “can digital nomads work in Thailand and not using a work allow?”, a Thai legal website said: “So as to work within the kingdom, a foreigner must: be on an acceptable visa, get hold of a piece allow, and pay taxes.” The web site went on to query the very that means of labor:
What is figure? A digital nomad engaged on his laptop computer in a co-working area, is that thought-about work? A businessman sitting in his lodge room getting ready for a seminar? When does the Work Allow workplace take into account this to be work? This can be a arduous query to reply with a simple sure or no.
For Ben and different fledgling digital nomads, tax and office protections have been the rug-pull that induced their digital nomad dream to topple. Many nomads hand over at this stage. For others, nonetheless, the digital nomad dream can turn into a recurring nightmare.
One key element of digital nomadism is the idea of “geoarbitrage”, which is a elaborate time period for wielding a western wage in a lower-cost, growing nation. Some people discover the thought unethical however for entrepreneurs having to attend tables whereas bootstrapping a enterprise, it is sensible to reside someplace cheaper than the Valley, London or New York.
Geoarbitrage was popularised by Ferriss in his e book and to some, the e book summarised all the things that was proper with globalisation: the concept your entire world ought to function as an open, free market. To others, it pointed to a nightmare.
Within the wake of Ferriss’s e book and likewise Digital Nomad by Japanese technologist Tsugio Makimoto – who’s extensively credited with coining the time period – digital nomads gravitated to tropical places with decrease residing prices. Thailand and Bali have been early hotspots however digital nomads aren’t sentimental. If a greater place provides the best mixture of welcoming visas and low residing prices, or catches the eye for another cause – as El Salvador did in 2021 by turning into the primary nation to classify Bitcoin legal currency – digital nomads are more likely to seem, with carry-on baggage.
To outlive as a nomad requires ability, tenacity and the privilege of holding a “strong” passport, some extent that Razavi has highlighted on Plumia’s Twitter feed:
A passport is now not a bodily doc however a set of rights and inequalities programmed into a pc. To me, which means that is the second the place this has to alter. In a world of distant work, this is senseless in any respect.
Vacationer visas are sometimes quick, so nomads travelling on them want to alter location repeatedly, typically as regularly as each two weeks. Some do visa runs to the closest border (to increase their visas) or depart and apply for longer-term customer visas. However this implies further journey and disrupts work routines. Established nomads typically clarify how they’ve discovered from previous errors. As they turn into extra highway savvy, they decelerate their journey patterns, refine their tax and visa preparations, and ensure they aren’t worrying about breaking native immigration legal guidelines.
Juggling work and journey is each a dream and a headache. A excessive proportion of nomads I’ve met abruptly disappear from the scene, and their social media posts about nomading stop. But that doesn’t cease the following era of dreamers turning up in Bali and Chiang Mai. And no dream, maybe, was extra alluring than the observe of “dropshipping”. It’s additionally massively controversial – even in nomad circles.
Between 2016 and 2018, “dropshipping” was the most well-liked get-rich-quick scheme I got here throughout in Chiang Mai. This on-line enterprise mannequin includes individuals advertising and marketing and promoting merchandise they could by no means have seen, produced in international locations they could by no means go to, to prospects they may by no means meet. The merchandise are sometimes niche items comparable to kitchen devices or pet equipment.
Usually, dropshippers promote their merchandise on social media and promote them by way of Amazon, eBay, or by creating their very own on-line shops utilizing software program comparable to Shopify. Dropshipping is catnip to aspiring digital nomads as a result of it’s borderless and provides the promise of “passive earnings”. As one nomad defined to me, “why wouldn’t you wish to earn cash when you sleep?”
However many dedicated digital nomads hate this darker facet of digital nomadism. Each Razavi and Pieter Ranges, creator of the web site, have declared that dropshipping is “bullshit”. One other British expat described it as “the snake oil that greased the wheels of a thousand start-ups in Chiang Mai”.
Younger nomads typically confided to me that they have been perfecting their dropshipping enterprise mannequin. Some confirmed me spreadsheets displaying greater than US$5,000 a month of passive earnings. However I additionally discovered extra concerning the emotional and financial prices.
At one unofficial dropshipper meet-up in Chiang Mai in 2018, I used to be instructed that when you needed to be actually profitable, you needed to turn into skilled at manipulating huge e-commerce platforms comparable to Amazon and eBay. Some talked about making an attempt to evade native well being and security legal guidelines when promoting area of interest merchandise like kitchen devices whereas tapping right into a pool of world low cost labour.
Competing with different sellers who troll you with unhealthy critiques was a darkish artwork, I found. Two males confided that their Amazon vendor accounts had been suspended after being accused of posting suspicious critiques. A number of admitted that they had obtained associates to review-bomb their opponents.
These dropshippers feared Amazon’s algorithms greater than border and customs inspections. Manipulating its evaluation system was significantly tough as a result of, in accordance with Larry, an ex-marine who manufactured his personal “prime secret” product in China (dropshippers hardly ever share what their area of interest merchandise are), “Amazon processes and algorithms appear to know all the things.”
“They know in case your cousin provides your product a five-star evaluation,” Ted added. Everybody nodded vigorously.
Each dropshipper promoting on (its US area) complained about Proposition 65, a listing of poisonous chemical compounds regulated in California which can be extensively utilized in Chinese language plastic manufacturing. Some had complete product classes (their complete “vendor itemizing”) deleted in California. These battles with native legal guidelines and tech giants present how the traces between nation states and companies can turn into blurry for digital nomads. Or as Ted put it: “Fuck the west coast. You’re caught between well being and security and the tech giants.”
Amazon could be very clear about its dropshipping policy: “We don’t permit a 3rd occasion to fulfil orders from different retailers on a vendor’s behalf, except the Amazon vendor of file is clearly recognized on the packaging,” a spokesperson instructed me. “Our insurance policies additionally prohibit critiques abuse.”
Pete, a dropshipping veteran utilizing a number of platforms, instructed the Chiang Mai meet-up that he had greater than US$10,000 price of inventory “at sea or in transit” and had constructed his personal e-commerce retailer. He additionally hinted that he would flip a blind eye to the opportunity of baby labour. “I’m getting extra concerned with the manufacturing,” he half-whispered to the room. “I despatched an agent to examine how issues have been going, and I heard that children have been packing the orders.” One other dropshipper chipped in: “Effectively, it’s China … what are you able to do?” Half the room shrugged.
Some dropshippers bragged to me about hacking into the worldwide pool of low cost, educated digital assistants (VAs) – typically from the Philippines the place English is extensively spoken. Zena, who bought dwelling decor to a “design-savvy clientele again within the US”, defined how “Instagram was her killer gross sales funnel”, however that she quickly realised “I used to be killing myself between the order fulfilments and socials [social media posts]”.
So Zena discovered a VA residing on the outskirts of Manila and outsourced all the things to her. “[It took] a month to get her totally up to the mark – she has an MBA, her English is nice. The time funding was completely price it; I get all the things finished higher than I may do it myself.”
Zena wouldn’t reveal how a lot she paid her VA, in case somebody tried to poach her. Two male dropshippers chipped in. “All of them have MBAs, bro,” one laughed. The opposite added, “Some settle for lower than [US]$500 a month. I’ve heard as little as $250, however that’s too low even for me.”
Ranges says dropshipping is a “terribly darkish story”, declaring that aspiring dropshippers could be victims too. He claimed on Twitter: “What’s dire about dropshipping is that these individuals from poor areas within the US pay hundreds of {dollars} for programs that don’t ship.”
Recent-faced nomads typically instructed me they have been excited to start out on-line programs, however others instructed me the content material didn’t train them a lot. Whereas it’s debatable whether or not these programs have been deliberate scams, many younger nomads have been disenchanted to find that dropshipping was a really troublesome approach to earn cash.
The dropshipping scene in Chiang Mai began to dwindle earlier than the pandemic hit in 2020, with many searching for out new “get wealthy fast” schemes. As one nomad instructed me in 2020, “cryptocurrency has stolen the limelight.”
The digital nomad on the seaside may need turn into a cliche, however what’s to not like about residing and dealing in paradise? Quite a bit in accordance with Andrew Eager, creator of The Internet Is Not The Answer. Eager is vital and dismissive of the digital nomad life-style – and when Razavi interviewed him for a Plumia livestream occasion, the dialog, in Razavi’s phrases, “obtained salty”.
When Razavi requested Eager about digital nomads and his “views on international mobility”, Eager replied:
I’m not in favour of tearing up your passport and being ‘wherever’ … I’m fairly vital of this new precariat, the brand new workforce current on so-called sharing platforms like Uber and Lyft to make a residing … I’m unsure most individuals wish to be nomads. I believe it’s a moderately ugly, depressing, lonely existence. The issue is that expertise is pushing us in that means.
Behind the inspirational blogs and inventory photos of hammocks, digital nomadism divides choices, typically angrily. Razavi believes mobility is a human proper, whereas Eager believes politics wants locations. This performs out in nationwide politics, too. On the 2016 Conservative Celebration convention within the UK, the brand new prime minister, Theresa Might, famously declared: “If you’re a citizen of the world, you’re a citizen of nowhere.” It was a battlecry inviting individuals to take sides.
In March 2020, COVID and its related international lockdowns briefly appeared to problem the thought of freely current “past nations”. But now that distant working has been normalised, the digital nomad dream has been supercharged – and each week, a new country or city appears to launch a distant work or digital nomad visa scheme.
In response to Razavi, Plumia “are speaking to a lot of international locations however that’s confidential … We’re chatting with rising economies.” She does title the federal government of Montenegro, nonetheless: “That one’s fairly public as a result of it’s on social media. I see there being alternative there.”
Estonia was the primary nation to pioneer a digital nomad visa. Having solely gained independence in 1991, it has positioned itself as a digital society the place 99% of presidency providers could be accessed on-line. In response to Estonian entrepreneur Karoli Hindricks, founding father of Jobbatical, a job-finding service for distant staff: “The place you have been born is sort of a statistical error.”
The thought of making a brand new nation by hacking and reassembling previous concepts is nothing new, in fact. The Principality of Sealand, positioned on a concrete platform within the North Sea, tried to claim sovereignty in 1967 with blended success. Some digital nomads obsessively analysis maritime legislation, others go on digital nomads cruises. One nomad confided to me that they needed to purchase an island in Brazil.
And whereas the thought of an web nation with none territory, or future plans to say any, is a radical idea for many, historical past teaches us that concepts, given the best tailwinds, can morph into actuality.
In 1996, for instance, John Perry Barlow revealed A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, through which he wrote the next missive to “outdated” governments:
Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and metal, I come from Our on-line world, the brand new dwelling of Thoughts. On behalf of the long run, I ask you of the previous to depart us alone. You aren’t welcome amongst us. You haven’t any sovereignty the place we collect.
Inside 4 years the dotcom bubble grew exponentially after which burst – proving each its evangelists and critics proper.
I mentioned the place digital nomadism could also be going with the documentary movie director Lena Leonhardt, who like me has spent years chronicling the digital nomad life-style. Her movie Roamers – Follow Your Likes tells 4 astonishing tales of nomads combining journey, work and chronicling their adventures on social media.
The movie’s foremost character is Nuseir Yassin – or Nas Daily as he’s recognized to his followers, as a result of he made a one-minute movie on a regular basis for 1,000 days whereas travelling. At the beginning of the film he’s seen on a stage, urging his viewers to not waste their lives: “I labored as a software program engineer for PayPal however I hated my job and I hated my life.”
Yassin wears a T-shirt with an infographic displaying his life as 33% used-up. “I had this revelation,” he explains. “I’m one-third useless with my life.” The remainder of the movie paperwork how he and different nomads turned their bizarre lives into one thing “fricking implausible”.
Leonhardt thinks the digital nomad life-style might have religious or spiritual qualities: “Many individuals really feel ‘I solely have this life and a really quick time, so I’ve to ensure this life is price one thing’.”But there’s little doubt the digital nomad life-style is way more durable when you don’t journey with a “robust” passport that permits visa-free journey. If you’re an African girl, for instance, nomadic journey could be troublesome and hostile.
Agnes Nyamwange, who additionally options within the movie, has a Kenyan passport. Earlier than the pandemic, she was based mostly within the US and “nomaded” in South America from there. Nyamwange defined that holding a Kenyan passport made visas dearer, as visa-free journey is way much less accessible to holders of many African passports.
For the reason that pandemic, travelling to the US or Europe has turn into virtually inconceivable for her. “I needed to go to Europe once they opened up, however the embassies right here mentioned it was closed for Africans. Lately I simply had the US Embassy telling me they don’t have any appointments accessible till 2024.”
Within the movie, Nyamwange memorably proclaims: “We’re a era of people that consider in superheroes.” She talks concerning the therapeutic energy of journey. However once I caught up along with her earlier this 12 months, she revealed the underbelly of nomadism to me:
It’s a cultish kind factor. It’s not sustainable. It’s good to journey from place to position to position to position, however you form of should have a sustainable life-style for it to be wholesome … 15% of it was actual, the opposite 85% is full junk.
Nyamwange added that it’s all about “promoting the dream”:
When you get into the digital nomad life-style, you begin understanding Instagram, Snapchat and all these social media techniques very effectively. However most individuals who painting and inform these tales don’t actually reside the lives that they’re promoting.
Regardless of all of the limitations, Nyamwange remains to be drawn to what she sees because the therapeutic points of labor and journey. For now although, she travels regionally in Africa, as a result of travelling additional “is such a headache”.
Digital nomadism might supply a tough highway, however it’s a religious path many wish to take. And believers like Razavi, Srinivasan and legions of different digital nomads will proceed to hunt alternate options to poor-value, inefficient nation states of their quest for a geographically untethered model of freedom.
But for the second a minimum of, this sort of freedom is a privilege which largely depends upon your homeland, long-term place of residence, and financial circumstances. Or put one other means, your given nationality.
*Analysis participant names have been modified to guard their anonymity.
Dave Cook, PhD Candidate in Anthropology, UCL
This text is republished from The Conversation beneath a Inventive Commons license. Learn the original article.
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